Schistosomiasis is the most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria. 85% of affected populations live in Africa. Clinical complications are many. WHO notes that on average 46 people die every hour of Schistosomiasis in the world. The health and economic impact of this epidemic appears indisputable. Several endemic foci are reported in Côte d’Ivoire. Most research work in relation to this is carried out from biomedical and geographical perspectives. Actually, how can you lead an effective program to control this epidemic if risk behaviours are ignored? This is the fundamental issue that justifies the scientific relevance of this study. Biomedical and geographical perspective cannot be the only way to propose a comprehensive and permanent solution. Failure to focus on issues involving risk factors associated with humans in this case, limits the effectiveness of such control. This is why it is important to involve socio-anthropology in order to establish a multidisciplinary field of Schistosomiasis control.