Hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface and are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots. Moss Landing-based scientists from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute discovered a field of the deepest known hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean, lying more than 12,500 feet (3,800 meters) below the surface. Deep in Gulf of California waters about 100 miles east of La Paz, Mexico, the Pescadero Basin vents are the only ones in the Pacific known to emit superheated fluids rich in both carbonate minerals and hydrocarbons. They also found black smokers and hydrothermal seeps. Each region harbored its own specific animal clique.
Major findings were the only other known carbonate chimneys (instead of one’s made primarily of sulfides) in the world have been found in the deep sea — the “Lost City” vent field in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. These chimneys emerge from a flat, muddy seafloor and are smaller.