Intrauterine growth restriction is defined as a fetus with an estimated fetal weight less than 10th percentile for gestational age and cardiovascular changes, usually detected by means of Doppler ultrasonography. Noncommunicable diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases -CVD- and diabetes) still represent the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the industrialized world. Various studies support the hypothesis, formulated by Barker, that an adverse intrauterine environ-ment results in physiological adaptations of the fetus, maximizing its immediate chances for survival, but with detri-mental effects in adulthood. Low birth weight caused by IUGR was recently known to be associated with increased rates of CVD, non-insulin dependent diabetes in adult life, and neuromotor development alteration. The ultrasound-based measurement of fetal aorta intima media thickness (aIMT) represents an easy marker to investigate the pre-atherosclerotic changes.