Worldwide, infectious diseases are the leading cause of death of children and adolescents, and one of the leading causes in adults. Three of the top ten causes of death, or sixteen percent of all deaths each year, are from infectious diseases . Most of these deaths are in low- and middle-income countries and are attributable to preventable or treatable diseases such as diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. While significant advances have been made in interventions to prevent and treat most of these diseases, those interventions are often unavailable to the populations most in need. Diarrhea and respiratory infections are the two most common causes of pediatric deaths. Infectious diseases can also impair physical and mental development among survivors. Malaria during pregnancy can result in low-birth weight babies and cognitive defects. Parasitic infections can lead to malnutrition, stunted growth and chronic pain.