The origin of stars and planetary systems, life in our solar system and possibly else-where in the Universe are research topics, which have attracted great interest among scientists. The discoveries of proto-planetary disks around other stars and the detection of more than 50 exoplanets provides evidence that the formation of extrasolar systems may be a common process throughout the Universe. Biogenic elements such as C, H, 0, N, S, and P are known to be widespread in our Galaxy and beyond. The search for organic molecules in interstellar and circurnstellar environments, their incorporation into potential planet-forming disks and subsequently in solar system mate~ rial has been successfully investigated within the last decade. The origin of life on planet Earth might have proceeded from simple precursor molecules to more complex self-replicating, metabolizing structures, evolving into primitive life. Extraterrestrial delivery of organic matter and water by comets and asteroids shortly after planetary formation may have triggered the emergence of life on Earth and possibly on Mars. The common interest on the origin and distribution of life in the Universe led to a new discipline, named Astrobiology, which is investigated by a great number of interdisciplinary scientists, well documented in the preceding chapters of this book. Exploration with astronomical telescopes, satellites and space missions contributes to the investigation of possible life habitats in our solar systems, the search for exoplanets and the link between infalling extraterrestrial matter and the jump-start of life on Earth. In this respect, Astrobiology will benefit from and determine a number of space exploration programs in the future. In the following a brief overview is given about astronomical and planetary space missions, which will investigate astrobiological aspects during their operation phase.