Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanisms underlying vascular disease has not been fully understood. As the nitrogen donor in nitric oxide (NO∙) synthesis, arginine and its metabolic products are integrally linked to vascular health and inflammation. We hypothesized that derangements in this pathway could explain, in part, increased atherosclerotic risk in CKD. We developed a targeted metabolomic platform to profile quantitatively arginine metabolites in plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Male low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr-/-) mice at age 6 weeks were subjected to sham or 5/6 nephrectomy surgery to induce CKD. Subsequently, the animals were maintained on high fat diet for 24 weeks. Targeted metabolomic analysis of arginine metabolites in plasma was performed by isotope dilution LC/MS including asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA), N-mono-methylarginine (NMMA), arginine and citrulline. Although elevated plasma levels of ADMA and SDMA were found in the CKD mice, only higher ADMA level correlated with degree of atherosclerosis. No significant differences were noted in levels of NMMA between the groups. CKD mice had high levels of citrulline and arginine, but ADMA levels had no correlation with either of these metabolites. These findings strongly implicate altered arginine methylation and accumulation of ADMA, may in part contribute to CKD accelerated atherosclerosis.
For more information : Mathew AV, Zeng L, Byun J, Pennathur S (2015) Metabolomic Profiling of Arginine Metabolome Links Altered Methylation to Chronic Kidney Disease Accelerated Atherosclerosis. J Proteomics Bioinform S14:001