Meta Description: Physical Punishment has been associated with a number of negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, such as increased aggressiveness, depression, low self-esteem, phobias, anxiety, schizotypal personality, and alcohol and drug abuse.
Congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia is an exceedingly uncommon disease in the newborn baby and it is usually diagnosed at birth or within one month of life. It is a rare entity with reported incidence between 4.3 to 8.6 per million live births. The criteria for diagnosis of congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia are: a) disease presentation at or shortly after birth (<30 days), b) proliferation of immature white cell, c) infiltration of cells into extrahemopoietic tissues and d) absence of any other condition that mimics congenital leukemia.
The etiological considerations in congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia have included chromosomal defects, intrauterine environmental insults, viral infections and exposure to radiation during pregnancy. Congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia has also been reported in association with Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, Klippel- Feil syndrome and Ellis-van Crevald syndrome. The congenital abnormalities and chromosomal syndromes have frequently been associated with childhood cancers and leukemia in particular. Most notably, Down’s syndrome is firmly established as a risk factor for leukemia.