Eugenol (1-allyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzene) is the phenolic component of essential oil and the main constituent of Eugenia caryophyllata, Ocimmum gratissimum and several others medicinal plant. In view of its nonmutagenic and non-carcinogenic properties, eugenol is generally regarded as safe by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Eugenol has been recently shown to be effective for antimicrobials and treatment of different life threatening diseases including sepsis, leishmaniasis, and cancer. However overall, activity of eugenol is not discussed elsewhere. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms involved the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory potential of eugenol.