In recent years researchers pointed out that arterial stiffness is considered to be an independent predictor of total and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality . Arterial stiffening is closely related to age and arterial hypertension (AH), together with CV risk factors involved in the progression of stiffness. Recently published ESH/ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension recommended the assessment of arterial stiffness as evidence of target organ damage.
Arterial stiffening should be considered together with cardiac function, as it is known that the interaction between the heart and the arterial system, the “ventricular-arterial (V-A) coupling”, could be the key factor in CV performance. Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined when a therapeutic strategy that includes appropriate lifestyle measures plus a diuretic and two other antihypertensive drugs belonging to different classes at adequate doses fails to lower systolic BP and diastolic BP levels to 140/90 mm Hg.