Aflatoxins, the most powerful mycotoxins, were discovered in the early 1960s with the outbreak of turkey “X” disease in England and high incidences of liver disease in ducklings in Kenya and hatchery-reared trout in the United States; the causes of all these problems were aflatoxins . Aflatoxins are present in numerous foods, such as cereals, spices , oilseeds , and dry fruits. After these foods are consumed, the aflatoxins pass into milk, , all dairy products, eggs and meat derivatives. Aflatoxins are considered unavoidable toxins . Biological control measures include lactic acid bacterial fermentation, which is known to render cereal-based foods and beverages safe , and the use of aluminosilicates, glucomannans and optimal storage conditions to prevent fungal growth. Aflatoxin intake is related to kwashiorkor and Reye syndrome , and aflatoxins induce liver damage in undernourished individuals . Aflatoxins are classified as Group I carcinogens in humans ; they are potent mutagens and teratogens, and they cause abortions, immunosuppression and cardiovascular symptoms. These toxins weaken veins and arterial walls, break platelets and cause internal hemorrhaging . Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) may interfere with the normal process of protein synthesis and may inhibit several metabolic systems, thus causing damage to various organs, especially the liver, kidney and heart .