Prebiotics are indigestible fibers that increase beneficial gut commensal bacteria resulting in improvements of the host's health. The beneficial effects of prebiotics are due to the byproducts generated from their fermentation by gut commensal bacteria. Prebiotics, such as fructooligosaccharide, mannanoligosaccharide, inulin, or Î²-glucan, are called immunosaccharides. They directly enhance innate immune responses including: phagocytic activation, neutrophil activation, activation of the alternative complement system, increased lysozyme activity, and more. Immunosaccharides directly activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors (PRR) expressed on innate immune cells. They can also associate with microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to activate innate immune cells. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in innate immune cell activation need to be further explored.