Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans. It still remains an important public health disease in the tropical parts of the world especially in the African continent. In Nigeria, the disease is responsible for 60% outpatient visits to health facilities, 30% under-five deaths, 11% maternal mortality and an estimated 300,000 deaths per year. Contributing to the burgeoning burden of the disease is drug resistance that has crippled most antimalarial drugs. Genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum populations is of major importance in the outcome of antimalarial drug vaccine design.