Translational medicine is the evolving discipline involving the translation of laboratory discoveries into the strategy and application of early-stage clinical trials. Mainly focuses on translating pre-clinical data from in vivo, in vitro, and in silico research into the clinic to help design trials, determines methods and chooses the biomarkers. Translational medicine also uses the data from clinical studies to feed back into pre-clinical experiments to advance prospect drug discovery. Biomarker is a vital piece of the translational effort and to understanding and critical level in individual patient's disease and response to experimental treatments.
Translational medicine uses a very patient-driven approach to drug development and is a result of the practical presentation for the improvements made in biomarker discovery in the era of personalized medicine. Translational medicine is introduced in many pharmaceutical companies as departments controlled with the task of facilitating the transition of basic research into practical treatments and clinical trials. This organization changes is based on the need for progress, dynamic exchange of evidence between late pre-clinical efforts and early stage clinical trials.
In oncology traditionally is been at the forefront of the biomarker improvement and personalized medicine. However for development of technology in fields such as neuroscience and immunological, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases are expanding their use of biomarkers for personalized medicine. It seeks to identify individuals who will receive the most clinical benefit and least harm from a specific treatment by targeting genetic or other targets associated with their disease. Enabled by technological advances and expansion of the use of biomarkers, researchers can stratify patients into disease subtypes then evaluate targeted therapies aimed to treat them.