alexa Radiolabeled Peptides as Imaging Probes for Cancer Diagnosis

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Radiolabeled Peptides as Imaging Probes for Cancer Diagnosis

Leishmania parasites cause Leishmaniasis, a worldwide spread disease with 2 million cases annually. Although Leishmaniasis is an ancient disease, it has recently been classified as an emerging pathology and considered a neglected disease. Diverse factors are favoring its expansion and turning it into a public health problem: human-made and environmental changes such as urbanization, migration and deforestation host immunity and individual risk factors, mainly coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus and malnutrition and inadequate vector o reservoir control, treatment failure and emerging of antileishmanial drug resistance due to incomplete treatment [1- 3]. Moreover, diagnosis and treatment is not often possible in rural areas where the disease is more frequent. Leishmania parasites can cause four main clinical manifestations: cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, mucocutaneous or mucosal lesions, and visceral pathology. Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of the disease, but cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most prevalent form. CL is caused mostly by L. major in the Old World and by L. Mexicana, L. peruviana, L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis in the New World. The prognosis of the disease depends on the Leishmania specie and immunological condition of the patient. Although CL lesions may be self-limited, the pathology needs to be treated to reduce scars and prevent potential dissemination of the disease. Standard treatment of CL includes pentavalent antimonials by intravenous or intramuscular route, which produce serious hepatic, cardiac and renal side effects. It is an invasive long treatment therefore patient compliance is difficult. The World Health Organization also recommends intralesional treatment with antimonial drugs depending on clinical features.

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