Ageing is the main risk factors for many degenerative diseases and thesearch for anti-ageing cures has been a quest for humanity since ancient times. It is wellknown that medieval elites were deeply interested in understanding the mechanisms ofageing and in developing anti-ageing interventions to extend healthy lifespan. However, it is little appreciated that many parallels exist between medieval science and currentbiomedical research on ageing: remarkably, similar aspects of human ageing weredeemed interesting and worthy of investigation by both medieval and modernresearchers. In this article, I examine the experiences of medieval Europe that havecontributed to the formation and historical persistence of long-lasting attitudes about theageing process. In particular, I highlight similarities between hypotheses formulated bymedieval scholars and current research themes and interventions that have beenexperimentally proven to combat ageing. Specifically, I report how prominent medievalscholars such as Roger Bacon understood that ageing is a process influenced by bothintrinsic (hereditary) and extrinsic (environmental) factors, and that hormesis, exercise,blood-derived factors, and dietary restriction can delay ageing. Thus, the experimentalevidence recently gathered on the molecular mechanisms of ageing provides answersfor longoutstanding questions that were already formulated by medieval scholars.