In 1984, Dr. Oldham proposed that cancer biotherapy is the fourth treatment modality for patients with cancer and might be useful in conjunction with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Meanwhile, the theory of biological response modifier therapy also has been proposed. Cancer biotherapy is a therapeutic strategy that enhances the anticancer potential of the immune system to fight against cancer and attenuates the side effects caused by other treatments. Biotherapy consists of gene therapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Various immunotherapeutic strategies, such as adoptive cellular therapy, anticancer vaccine therapy and cytokines, have been developed. Numerous preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated that biotherapy in combination with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or other therapies has greatly increased the cure rate, reduced the side effects and improved the quality of life of cancer patients.
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