Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a key role in neuronal plasticity, especially in brain regions pertinent to cognition and regulation of mood. Depression is the most common mood disorder in the advanced cancer setting and often associated with an impaired cognitive function . Depression and cognitive dysfunction increase functional impairment, compliance with therapy and reduce quality of life. Like cancer, various diseases associated with significant inflammation show high prevalence rates of depression. Thus, inflammatory cytokines, i.e. IL-6, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression.