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Diabetes and its Effects: Statistics and Biosensors

The term “diabetes mellitus” describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. Diabetes is categorized into Type-1 and Type-2. Type- 1 diabetes was previously called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes. Although disease onset can occur at any age, the peak age for diagnosis is in the mid-teens. Type 1 diabetes develops when the cells that produce the hormone insulin, known as the beta cells, in the pancreas are destroyed. This destruction is initiated or mediated by the body’s immune system and limits or completely eliminates the production and secretion of insulin, the hormone that is required to lower blood glucose levels. To survive, people with Type-1 diabetes must have insulin delivered by injection or a pump. In adults, Type-1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.

Citation: Kanchi S, Sharma D, Bisetty K, Nuthalapati VN (2015) Diabetes and its Effects: Statistics and Biosensors. J Environ Anal Chem 2:e111.

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