Between 1997 and 2011, more than 200 new substances have been officially notified in European Union via the Early Warning System with the largest number of compounds ever reported in a single year in 2011 (49 substances). In 2010, an internet snapshot anticipated the presence of 5-iodo 2-aminoindan (5-IAI) within the recreational drug market. In 2011, this compound, a psychoactive analog of p-iodoamphetamine, was identified in United Kingdom. The aim of this paper is to summarize the clinical, pharmacological and toxicological information currently available about this new potential recreational drug. 5-IAI is a research chemical recently appeared within the recreational drug market. Clinical information emerged by users reports suggest that it can produce MDMA-like effects. Although some studies have highlighted that 5-IAI is less neurotoxic than MDMA, there are no evidences demonstrating its safety in human. Thus, drug users must be discouraged from taking this substance because it could be dangerous to health. A better international cooperation is of great importance in order to monitoring and preventing the spread of this new potential recreational drug.Is the 5-iodo-2-aminoindan (5-IAI) the New MDMA?