By the combination of pharmaceutical industry and expert of common interest of improving to design translational medicine aims of in vivo models for respiratory disease. The main aim of the symposium was to identify state-of-the-art improvements in the utility and design of models of respiratory disease, with a view to improving their translational potential and reducing wasteful animal usage. The respiratory research and development community is responding to the challenge of improving translation in several ways by greater collaboration and open sharing of data, careful selection of the species, complexity and chronicity of the models, improved practices in preclinical research, continued refinement in models of respiratory diseases and their sub-types, greater understanding of the biology underlying human respiratory diseases and their sub-types and finally greater use of human cells which are relevant, tissues and explants. The highlights of these initiatives, combining lessons from the symposium and papers published in Clinical Science arising from the symposium, with critiques of the models currently used in the settings of asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The ultimate scope is that this will contribute to a more rational, efficient and sustainable development of a range of new treatments for respiratory diseases that continue to cause substantial illness and illness across the world.