social equality concerns the distribution of social goods and burdens, such as income, wealth, opportunity, education, and health care. Although we may claim that all people are somehow "equal" -- say, equally valuable in the eyes of God -- this is not a conception of social equality but a call for equal moral treatment -- for example, to claim that everyone has the same basic rights. Instead, social equality occurs when some good, like income or happiness, is equally attained. Say the good is freedom. Social equality would then mean that freedom should be equally distributed. The problem of defining social equality involves the specification of the goods that should be equally distributed and the units to which those goods are distributed. Should we claim that basic political rights should be equally distributed, or should we concentrate on income, workload, wealth, health care, or opportunity? The units to which these goods are to be equally distributed is also problematic. Many believe that all proposals should be in terms of individuals. All people should have an equal attainment of good X (or the good we decide should be equally distributed). Suppose we use income as the good. Should we really insist on all individuals having a right to the same income when many people are infants and many people share expenses in the same households? We may believe that a proper mark of social equality will call for equal distribution of income to all households. This example shows that the question about the unit to be equally provided with a good is not properly answered by the quick claim that individuals constitute the unit.
For more information: https://www.omicsonline.org/socialomics.php