A total of 805 new cases presenting with symptoms of bronchopulmonary disorders from January 2008 to August 2009 were randomly selected from ten health facilities in rural communities in Eastern Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for collection of their clinical history and biodata. Sputum and sera duplicated samples were obtained from all the patients. The sputum samples were examined for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by both Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, microscopy and culture on Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. The sputum samples were decontaminated with sodium hydroxide using the modified Petroff's technique in a class one safety cabinet.