alexa Regulates Macrophage Polarization and Plasticity

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Regulates Macrophage Polarization and Plasticity

Macrophage (Mφ) activation can occur via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pathogenrecognition receptors (PRRs, including the toll-like receptors [TLRs]) or by cytokine-receptor ligation, with nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB) activation being a common downstream effect of these stimuli . Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are the most potent inducers of classical Mφ activation and production of these cytokines is the major route by which T helper (Th) subset 1 (Th1) cells enhance the antimicrobial capacity of Mφ .


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