Currently, there are no biomarkers which can identify patients who have an increased risk of developing UC as a result of occupational exposure to chemicals. Chemical exposure remains a significant risk factor for urothelial cancer (UC) in developed countries despite the laws which limit occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.
This is attributable to both the latency periods that often exceed 20 years and the significant range of chemical agents associated with increased risk of bladder cancer. Recent evidence suggests that metal workers, car mechanics, plumbers, those exposed to intermediates in rubber and plastics manufacture , and those working in occupations allied to agriculture or medicine and health could be at risk of developing UC. With respect to aromatic amines, risk is highest in those exposed at a younger age, those with over 10 years of exposure and amongst certain categories of painters.