Meta Description: Solar cells, since their optical band gap (3.3 eV) is wide enough to transmit most of the useful solar radiation. ZnO is an n-type semiconductor and its conductivity can be controlled by thermal treatment or by adequate doping. The doping of ZnO films with the group III elements can increase the conductivity of the films.
Many techniques have been used for fabricating ZnO films, such as chemical vapour deposition, pulsed laser deposition, dc reactive sputtering, spray pyrolysis and the sol–gel process. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO and ZnO:Al films prepared by thermally evaporating zinc acetate and AlCl3 in vacuum have been investigated in detail, together with the effects of heat treatment in air and vacuum. The properties of the deposited ZnO and ZnO:Al films depend on the deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, evaporation rate of zinc acetate and Aluminum concentration.
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