British Mass Media and Image of Pakistan's Government Stance in Pak-India Relations: The Case Study of'Guardian'and'Telegraph

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British Mass Media and Image of Pakistan's Government Stance in Pak-India Relations: The Case Study of'Guardian'and'Telegraph

According to the Military balance, India and Pakistan account for 80% of the defence expenditure of the region. The economic burden of military spending for India and Pakistan during the last ten years has been one of the highest in the world .The military man power numerical strength of India and Pakistan are the fourth and seventh largest in the world, respectively, while the GNP per capita in 1995, Pakistan ranked 129th and India stood at 138th in the world (Talbot, 2000). Today India has a defence establishment of over a million people, while Pakistan is close to 800,000. According to current estimate the total cost of India’s nuclear program through 2001 has been in the region of $18 billion while Pakistan is supposed to have spent $6 billion. Militarization besides consuming a disproportionate share of national budget, also inflict, certain hidden costs and arms related debt creation. In 1999 Pakistan had a $30 billion foreign debt while India had a foreign debt in the region of $90 billion (Durrani, 2000). As a result India and Pakistan are amongst the most deprived nations of the world, based on the evaluation of per capita income, literacy rate, health, infrastructure and gender equality. Forty percent of the citizens of both countries live below the poverty line. Villages and town do not have access to clean drinking water. Children, who survive, despite unhygienic conditions, have a life span much shorter than developed societies. Both Pakistan and India have low literacy rate. Growth rate in both countries is high. Both are suffering from the problem of energy shortfalls and need monetary and technical assistance to build basic infrastructure required for rapid development (Arif, 2001). But unluckily financial resources are diverted towards building up defence forces to deal with a possible outbreak of hostilities. Both countries are facing the challenges of poverty, illiteracy, terrorism, corruption but consuming their all energies on traditional rivalries. This study also examines the nature of relationship between elite British Press and Pakistan government. This study attempts to unfold the policy of the British Press and to see the points of commonalities and differences among their editorial policy about Pakistan government stance on Pakistan-India relations related issues during January 2008 to October 2009. In this uni-polar world, it has become imperative for the nations to minimise conflict and enhance cooperation. The role of international media to influence foreign policy and matters of the countries has assumed paramount importance. Pakistan – India relations hold key role for peace and stability in South Asia. The present global political scenario with regional importance has once again highlighted position of South Asia. The major obstacle in the region for economic and political stability is Pakistan-India relations. The researcher attempts to explore that what kind of relationship exist between foreign policy of Pakistan government and the policies of British Press. The researcher focuses upon the editorials and articles of The Guardian and The Telegraph for analysing their editorial policy towards Pakistan’s government stance on under research issues of Pakistan-India relations. Editorials are considered to be the most important part of the newspaper as they reflect the policy of the newspaper and a newspaper is an entity, not a limb of greater organization. Its editorials are the product of an organization rather than the work of an individual (Saleem, 2000).The researcher will see the how far British newspapers endorse Pakistan government stance on under research issues of Pakistan-India relations. The Guardian and The Telegraph are international famed elite British Newspapers. Both have their worldwide influence by their news, editorials and articles. They are considered standard highly circulated newspapers of UK; serve both elite and metropolitan readers; both of the newspapers have sizeable staff deputed at London, Manchester and established bureaus around the UK and world. Policy makers, officials and attentive community leaders, groups do not miss their editorials and news coverage. This study is closely related to Cohen (1963) and Harris (1999) studies of media-foreign policy relationship. The researcher attempted to examine the nature of relationship between the British and Pakistan government foreign policy on Pak-India relations issue.

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