Objective: This study was done on 40 male wistar rats to evaluate the curative and protective effect of grape seeds extract on oxidative damage, inflammatory and apoptotic insult on lung tissue induced by cadmium chloride toxicity.
Materials and Methods: The rats were classified to control group (group I), cadmium chloride group (group II), grape seeds extract group (group III) and mixture of grape seeds extract and cadmium chloride group (group IV). At the end of the experimental period, the lungs were collected and fixed in formalin saline (10%) for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Serum samples and frozen lungs were used for biochemical analyses.
Results: The rats groups treated with grape seed showed a significant attenuated oxidative stress by reducing lung tissue malondialdehyde and improving glutathione peroxidase content as well as antioxidant enzymes activities in lung tissues and serum total antioxidant capacity in comparison to group II. The lung tissue of the group II is characterized by thick interalveolar septum, congested and edematous blood vessels. Diffuse and circumscribed lymphocytic infiltration especially around the bronchioles with hyperplasia in the lining cells. Most of the lung tissue showed normal structure as that of the control group except some blood vessels showed congestion in group IV. The immunohistochemical results were negative immunostaining for bcl-2, positive for bax and ki67 in the cadmium treated group, while showed positive immunostaining for bcl-2 in group IV.
Conclusion: The addition of grape seeds extract improves the hazard toxic effect of cadmium chloride in the lung tissue through its powerful free radical scavenging property, strong antioxidant activity and effective anti-apoptotic potential.