Recently, national reports on state of the urban infrastructures have been produced in several countries (e.g. Canada, USA, Denmark, Norway), evaluating the investment needs to replace aging facilities that are near the end of their useful lives and to comply with existing and future water regulations. In the national reports, the current situation is weighed towards the standard requested by regulations, the customers’ expectations and coming challenges. Compared to other infrastructures, water and wastewater networks are among the systems that are most vulnerable due to their intrinsic nature. Thus, the reports emphasize the need for massive investment in urban water and wastewater networks to come up to and keep today’s desired service level for the coming decades.