|Body mass index (BMI), defined as weight divided by the square of height, was developed to allow assessment of weight independent of height. Other measures have also been considered in an attempt to better capture risk for all-cause mortality as well as obesity related morbidities, which include such conditions as hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes, some cancers, and the recently defined locomotive syndrome. Thus, BMI has come to be augmented by other simple biometrics, primarily waist circumference (WC) and various derivatives of WC such as waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR).
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.