Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) self-replicate and differentiate into a variety of cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and smooth muscle cells. These capacities have made MSCs useful in studies of bone and cartilage regeneration. One of the sources of human MSCs (hMSCs) is adult bone marrow, although they occur at a rate of one per one-hundred-thousand nucleated cells, and the available volume of bone marrow is limited. To secure the numbers of hMSCs required for tissue regeneration, the cell must be expanded ex vivo. Although hMSCs are stable ex vivo, it is possible that they undergo transformation to an unlimited proliferation phenotype during expansion.
Previous studies have demonstrated that Ewingâs sarcoma is derived from MSCs. Ewingâs sarcoma is a malignancy that primarily affects children and young adults, with a peak incidence between the ages of 14 and 20 years. It arises mainly in bone and less commonly in soft tissues. The t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosomal translocation generating EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene is found in 85% of cases. EWS-FLI-1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation in Ewingâs sarcoma cells. Thus, EWS-FLI-1 expression is believed to play a key role in Ewingâs sarcoma development. However, EWS-FLI-1 expression does not transform normal murine and human fibroblasts, suggesting EWS-FLI-1 promotes malignant transformation in selective cells.
Rumi Sawada, Cyclin D2 Promotes the Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
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Last date updated on July, 2014