Bone is a dynamic tissue that maintains homeostasis through continuous bone remodeling by bone-forming osteoblasts (OB) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OC). Bone houses the haematopoietic system and is the origin of many immune cells including monocytes and lymphocytes. Bone homeostasis can be profoundly disrupted by the innate and adaptive immune responses and the central importance of crosstalk between the immunocytes and bone cells is highlighted by an exciting new research field, osteoimmunology. Results from osteoimmunology studies have unraveled complex mechanisms by which immune cells promote bone inflammation and destruction via actions on resident cells in the bone marrow (BM). The close relationship between the immune cells and bone is most evident in patients with inflammatory arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) as evidenced by the following observations. First, bone marrow edema (BME) was detected by MRI in RA patients, findings which precede subsequent bone erosion by several years. Second, bone marrow aspirates (BMA) are a great autologous source of osteoprogenitors containing stem cells with potential to regenerate bone that has been damaged by trauma or inflammatory arthritis. Third, local bone inflammation was shown to promote osteoclast differentiation in the subchondral bone, indicating a functional role of BM as a matrix to promote local bone/ joint damage.
Yahui Grace Chiu, Characterization of DC-STAMP+ Cells in Human Bone Marrow
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Last date updated on July, 2014