Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) provides an effective evidence-based symptomatic surgical treatment for advanced stages of Parkinsonâs disease (PD). Optimal hardware programming can be challenging in some cases, as side effects may interfere with stimulation parameters required for sufficient control of motor symptoms. The bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation has some known side effects ashypophonia, dysarthria, dyskinesia and eyelid apraxia. Eye lid apraxia is a non-paralytic motor abnormality characterized by difficulty in initiating opening of the eyelids. Premotor control of lid-eye coordination by extrapyramidal and mesencephalic circuitries has been suggested and dopaminergic involvement was further substantiated by analysis of blinking rates in patients with PD.
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Last date updated on June, 2014