Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been described as the defining injury of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Although there has been a significant amount of research characterizing the brain injury produced by blast, greater understanding of the contribution of each component of the shockwave to the injury is needed. Large animal models of bTBI utilize chemical explosives as their shockwave source while small animal models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their shockwave source. Secondary injury mechanisms associated with TBI pathology are often a significant source of damage and dysfunction in addition to the primary mechanical trauma. One significant consequence of sustaining a TBI is vascular damage. Physical disruption of brain vasculature can lead to hematoma and hemorrhage within the cranial vault. Reported peak pressures necessary to produce blast injury have varied greatly from 20 kPa for whole-body exposure to 20,000 kPa for direct brain exposure to shockwaves .
Last date updated on June, 2014