|Cachexia is defined as an extreme wasting condition with marked weight loss, anorexia, and lassitude. About half of all cancer patients show a syndrome of cachexia characterized by loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. Such patients have a decreased survival time compared with that of patients without weight loss. Abnormal metabolism is thought to be the basis of the cachexia status in advanced cancer patients. Cachexia induces the cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-Î±, IL-1, and IL-6, is thought to inhibit the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and thereby induces weight loss as a result of reduced fat accumulation in the tissues. Therefore, it is thought that emaciation of cancer patients might be prevented and cachexia improved by increasing LPL activity
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access rises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funds.