A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
Glioma is a type of tumor that starts in brain or spine and raises the glial cells, which causes the gliomas. These cells are mostly responsible in making the tumors in brain. These cells are malignant in nature. Hereditary genetic disorders such as neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis complex are known to predispose to their development and existance. Gliomas have been correlated to the electromagnetic radiation and most of the glioblastomas are infected with cytomegalovirus, which speeds the development of tumors. Some genetic disorders also increase the risk of development of gliomas tumors in children but rarely in adults. The tumor growth exist for more growth and final death occurs within 2 to 3 years.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014