Cancer also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include: a new lump, abnormal bleeding, a prolonged cough, unexplainedweight loss, and a change in bowel movements, among others. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may also occur due to other issues. There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans.
Risk factors and protective factors are always a point to be discussed in the cancer prevention. Anything increase or decrease in the treatment can cause the risk factor or cancer protective factor. Cancer risk factor can be avoided or cannot be avoided if the daily habits are increased to some extent. Smoking and inheriting genes are one of the risk factors which cause cancer. Other factors like environment, diet, habit causes or prevent cancer. This type of summary reveals the major cancer risk factors and protective factors that can change the risk in cancer. Expose to certain chemicals may also raise the risk to cancer.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014