"Apoptosis is also called as programmed cell death, a process by which the cells are destroyed. In human body, the destruction of cells can be of two types namely necrosis or apoptosis. Necrosis is caused due to external agents like bacteria or virus or other substances. In this case the cell is killed. While in apoptosis, the cells die from within. Due to internal factors, like old cells or damaged cells. Thus form a clean-up process inside the human. In a cancerous cell, apoptosis pathway is blocked and hence the cells grows continuously and leads to a malignant tissue. Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roadstowards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014