Heart failure can be caused by factors originating from within the heart (i.e., intrinsic disease or pathology) or from external factors that place excessive demands upon the heart. Intrinsic disease includes conditions such as dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. External factors that can lead to heart failure include long-term, uncontrolled hypertension, increased stroke volume (volume load; arterial-venous shunts), hormonal disorders such as hyperthyroidism, and pregnancy.
Cardiovascular Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them. Cardiovascular diseases are conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels and include arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, shock, endocarditis, diseases of the aorta and its branches, disorders of the peripheral vascular system, and congenital heart disease.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on June, 2014