Cardiovascular implants have been introduced into clinical practice for a broad spectrum of indications. Devices can be implanted at almost every location throughout the cardiovascular system. Beside the surgical route, many other ways and methods have been developed for bringing the implant to its destiny in the human body. Heart surgeons, vessel surgeons, neurosurgeons, radiologists, cardiologists and pediatric cardiologists routinely perform implantations of a large variety of devices into blood vessels or into the heart. But independent of which type of implant found its final destination where or how, and who performed the procedure: the implant is and will remain a foreign body. Foreign body surface exposure to the bloodstream is inevitable. This implies that there is a substantial risk of superficial thrombus formation with the inherent risk of subsequent embolisation and further organ damage.
Last date updated on July, 2014