Sepsis, defined as the dissemination of infection throughout the vascular tree and circulating blood is produced by all pathogens from bacteria to viruses, fungi and parasites.Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection. In severe septic states there is a high associated mortality up to 25% in bacterial sepsis and higher with viremia. In severe infections where there is shock, there is often an excess outpouring of inflammatory cytokines with excess inflammatory cell activation and invasion followed by a loss or attrition of normal immune responses - the cytokine storm. With the onset of this cytokine storm there can also be an excessive activation of the coagulation system with microvascular coagulation, occlusion of small vessels which cause ischemia of multiple organs resulting in circulatory collapse, pulmonary distress and renal failure. This excess clotting againdepletes clotting factors, causing subsequent bleeding.
Last date updated on August, 2021