Angina, which is sometimes called angina pectoris, is chest pain that is caused by inadequate coronary blood flow (Oxygen) to the myocardium. When coronary blood flow cannot deliver sufficient oxygen to support cardiac oxidative metabolism the myocardium becomes hypoxic. This triggers pain receptors within the heart, which lead to the classical presentation of chest pain and the sensation of substernal heaviness or pressure.
Cardiovascular Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them. Cardiovascular diseases are conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels and include arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, shock, endocarditis, diseases of the aorta and its branches, disorders of the peripheral vascular system, and congenital heart disease.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on May, 2014