Toxicology (from the Ancient Greek words τοξικός toxikos "poisonous" and λόγος logos) is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine (more specifically pharmacology) concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.
The relationship between dose and its effects on the body have a high significance in toxicology. The major norm regarding the toxicity of a drug or chemical is the dose, i.e. the amount of exposure to the substance. All substances are toxic under some circumstances. The term LD50 denotes the dose of a toxic substance that kills 50 percent of a test population typically rats or other surrogates when the test proceeds for human toxicity.
The conventional relationship more exposure to the toxic substances shows the equal higher risk has been described in the study of endocrine disruptors. Toxicity is species-specific, lending cross-species analysis problematic. Newer methods has been established to bypass animal-testing.
Factors that influence toxicity: Dosage, Both acute exposures and chronic exposures, Route of exposure, Ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption, Species, Age, Sex, Health, Environment, Individual characteristics.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review.
Last date updated on January, 2021