Living cells communicate by variety of means some of them are electrical, chemo, thermo, thigmo type of communication. However all these communication signals are due to protiens or carbohydrate or glycoconjugates or proteoglycans or glycoprotiens displayed either on the cell surfaces or secreted by them. In Prokaryotes cell signalling is by mostly chemicals, protiens and sugars. In most of the Eukaryotes cell signalling is mediated by G-Protien coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are seven transmemebrane (7TM) protiens. There are two mechanisms in GPCRs functioning one is the cAMP signal pathway and the second is phosphatidylinositol signal pathway.
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Last date updated on January, 2021