Cell-to-cell communication is the fundamental mechanism that enables multicellular organisms to maintain tissue homeostasis and normal cellular functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, may act as a crucial mediator of intercellular communication. It is well-established that EVs are small membrane vesicles secreted from numerous cell types, including immune cells, tumor cells, and stem cells. In addition, EVs have been found in various body fluids, such as blood, saliva, and urine. EVs are secreted either in a constitutive or regulated manner. For instance, a number of tumor cells release EVs constitutively, whereas primary B cells secrete EVs when stimulated with potent activation signals, such as cytokine.
Extracellular Vesicles as an Emerging Paradigm of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Stem Cell Biology- Chul-Woo Kim.
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Last date updated on June, 2021