In the developmental biology the main prespective is to understand how a cell develops in to an organism means how a cell fate is determined. Neural stem/progenitor cells can be a powerful tool for the neural repair of the damaged brain. Many of the current challenges with stem cell therapies revolve around the problem that stem cells do not survive, migrate, proliferate and differentiate as much as hoped. The interaction between Neural Progenitor Cells and the immune system is essential for the effective use of stem cell transplantation. Cytokines play an important role in determining the inflammatory microenvironment and have also been shown to have effects on the differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of Neural Progenitor Cells. The effects of cytokines on neural stem cell fate is more complex; the distinction between anti-inflammatory and pro- inflammatory cytokines is not straightforward and varies based on conditions such as cytokine concentration and area of transplantation. Neural Progenitor Cells transplantation itself elicits an inflammatory response, which in turn influences Neural Progenitor Cells fate and the success or failure of a transplant. The niche in which Neural Progenitor Cells reside determines Neural Progenitor Cells fate, and this niche is partially controlled by components of the immune system. (Jocelyn Breton and Yang Mao-Draayer, Impact of Cytokines on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Fate).
Last date updated on September, 2014