|Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Autophagy is the basic catabolic mechanism which involves mainly cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components with the actions of lysosomes. The breakdown of cellular components can ensure cellular survival during starvation by maintaining their cellular energy levels. If Autophagy regulated, ensures the synthesis, degradation and recycling of the cellular components. During this autophagy process, targeted cytoplasmic constituents are isolated from the rest of the cell within the autophagosomes, which fuses with lysosomes and recycled or degraded. There are three different kinds of autophagy that are commonly described; microautophagy ,macroautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. With the context of disease, autophagy has been observed as an adaptive response to survival, whereas in other cases it appears to promote cell death and morbidity. There are three main pathways involved in autophagy and these are mediated by the autophagy-related genes and their associated enzymes. Macroautophagy is the main pathway, occurring mainly to eradicate the damaged cell organelles or unused proteins which involve the formation of a double membrane around cytoplasmic substrates resulting in the organelle known as an autophagosome. Microautophagy, on the other hand, involves the direct engulfment of cytoplasmic material into the lysosome which occurs by invagination i.e the inward folding of the lysosomal membrane, or cellular protrusion. Chaperone-mediated Autophagy is a very complex and specific pathway, involving the recognition by the hsc70-containing complex.