|Scholarly journals are generally academic journals that encourage academic and scientific research. These journals generally prefer to publish original works, conducted following a systematic research methodology. The articles published in the scholarly journals are critically evaluated following in-depth analysis of the research data. Scholarly Journal articles strictly adhere to a standard format of writing. Scholarly journals hence subject like medical and clinical articles for a blind peer review or double peer review system and expect the authors to correct and resubmit the research articles as per the expert opinion. Scholarly journals thus expect the authors to sign the declaration, stating that the work is original and unpublished that duly acknowledges the sources referred for information.
Autophagy is the basic catabolic mechanism which involves mainly cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components with the actions of lysosomes. The breakdown of cellular components can ensure cellular survival during starvation by maintaining their cellular energy levels. If Autophagy regulated, ensures the synthesis, degradation and recycling of the cellular components. During this autophagy process, targeted cytoplasmic constituents are isolated from the rest of the cell within the autophagosomes, which fuses with lysosomes and recycled or degraded. There are three different kinds of autophagy that are commonly described; microautophagy ,macroautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. With the context of disease, autophagy has been observed as an adaptive response to survival, whereas in other cases it appears to promote cell death and morbidity. There are three main pathways involved in autophagy and these are mediated by the autophagy-related genes and their associated enzymes. Macroautophagy is the main pathway, occurring mainly to eradicate the damaged cell organelles or unused proteins which involve the formation of a double membrane around cytoplasmic substrates resulting in the organelle known as an autophagosome. Microautophagy, on the other hand, involves the direct engulfment of cytoplasmic material into the lysosome which occurs by invagination i.e the inward folding of the lysosomal membrane, or cellular protrusion. Chaperone-mediated Autophagy is a very complex and specific pathway, involving the recognition by the hsc70-containing complex.