|Scholarly journal is a peer-reviewed journal in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Scholarly journals serve as forums for the introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research, and the critique of existing research. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The term Scholarly journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals.
Germ cells are the only type of cell that can transmit all genomic information to the next generation. Such cells have unique characteristics, being not only germline-competent but also serving as stem cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, germ cell lineages are predetermined. In contrast, in mammals, primordial germ cells, which are precursors of germ cells, are induced from multipotentepiblasts via extra-embryonic signaling. In avian species, however, the means by which germ cells are defined remain to be elucidated. Manipulation of germ cells is valuable in studies on germline development and in production of valuable cell lines. In birds, which lack germline-competent stem cells, genomic modulation of germ cells might serve to generate genetically modified poultry for both commercial applications and basic research. (Tae Sub Park, HyungChul Lee, DeivendranRengaraj and Jae Yong Han, Germ Cell, Stem Cell, and Genomic Modification in Birds)