A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status, using income, parentâs occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. Thirty years of research have established that family income and other measures of socioeconomic status are highly associated with cognitive, intellectual and achievement outcomes in childhood. The correlational studies between socioeconomic status and child outcomes in typically developing children suggest that higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher IQ higher vocabulary development, better school achievement, and a variety of domains indicated better child health and development than children of lower socioeconomic status. Brain volume has been shown to be positively correlated with IQ. However, total brain volume does not mediate the relationship between parental education and IQ, indicating that socioeconomic status variables may be contributory. Brain development during childhood and adolescence is characterized by progressive myelination of neural networks. Findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that cerebral white matter volume and the area of the corpus callosum, the main interhemispheric commissure, increase significantly from childhood through late adolescence.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ
Jade V Marcus Jenkins
Last date updated on June, 2014