|The innate immune response to an infection is a first line rapid reaction consisting of two elements: recognition of invading microorganisms and complex biochemical and cellular consequences of this fact. The innate immune response has been regarded as relatively non-specific but sensitive. The cellular elements of innate immunity are represented by phagocytic cells and antigen-presenting cells-granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) respectively, cytotoxic NK cells, T lymphocytes. The innate immune system recognizes conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that have been implicated in activating the host innate response. These structures are sensed by germ lineencoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represented by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed at the cell surface or intracellularly and Nod-like receptors (NLRs). The early immune reaction includes complement activation, phagocytosis and immune activation by different families of PRRsâ MalgorzataLipinska-Gediga et al., Innate Response to Infection.
Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology has addressed this basic concept of immunology through a special issue which was our attempt to compile research, review, short communications and commentary articles based on innate responses to various infectious diseases. The special issue has discussed various aspects such as immune reactions to different kind of infections and role of immune cells in mediating these responses.